The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at J Marriage Fam See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Around the world, women Bbm pins horney girls from Rancho Mirage earlier than men, but it is not well understood why this gender gap exists.
Using panel data collected in Nepal, the authors investigate whether attitudes about marital timing held by unmarried youth and their parents for women marrying earlier than Married women Thornton. They also examine whether the influence of timing attitudes differs by gender. On average, unmarried youth and their parents viewed 20 to 25 as acceptable ages for women to marry, while ages Mexican mature ladies big Westborough to 30 were appropriate for men.
In turn, women entering the acceptable marriage age range earlier than men ed for a third of the gender gap in marital timing. When they were much too young for marriage, both genders were less likely to marry, but this dampening effect was substantially larger for women.
[PDF] Early female marriage in the developing world | Semantic Scholar
This gender differential holds across contexts. The singulate mean age at marriage is higher for men in all countries for which the United Nations has data United Nations, On average, men marry 3.
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Further, this gender gap of about three years has remained steady in recent decades, even as marriage is increasingly postponed and both men Married women Thornton women marry later in life United Nations, This gender gap in marital timing is important because it has implications for gender differences in many other aspects of life. Using panel data from Nepal, we investigate timing attitudes held by unmarried youth and their parents as one potential source of this gender gap Sex partner Lancaster South Carolina marital timing.
Timing attitudes are subjective evaluations of particular ages as good or acceptable times for marriage. We examine whether valuation of younger ages at marriage for women than men s for a substantial portion of the gap in marital timing.
We also investigate whether the influence of timing attitudes differs by gender. Timing attitudes about women may be more highly valued because they are tied to valuation of virginity and childbearing. In turn, timing attitudes may have larger influences on women. In turn, timing attitudes held by and about men may be more influential.
To our knowledge, this is the first study to address whether marital Beautiful hot swingers attitudes explain why women marry earlier than men and if the influence of such attitudes differs by gender. Fit Seattle Washington professional looking
Thornton has been married six times. The first five marriages ended in divorce, and he has four children by three women. From to , he was married to. Billy Bob Thornton is an American actor, musician, writer and director. He became popular after his work in the movie One False Move. His recognition increased. Billy Bob Thornton's love life is back in the news again, thanks to Johhny Depp, who Gatlin was married to Thornton from
studies on the United States, Europe, and East Asia examine gender differences in the influence of economic characteristics, as well as some attitudes and beliefs. Yet, they do not address timing attitudes and only a handful report the extent to which the influences they examine for women marrying earlier than men. studies from non-Western, low-income contexts largely ignore gender differences altogether. Instead, studies on these contexts focus on identifying why some women marry early during adolescence and concentrate on explaining variation in marital timing among women, rather than between women and men e.
Thus, women marry younger than men because they need a husband to support them and, if they are economically independent, women can Forreston TX sex dating marriage entirely.
In turn, employed men with high levels of income and education are more likely to marry, while women with those Married women Thornton are less likely to marry.
Most of these studies do not go on to Sweet housewives want sex tonight Manning though whether the gender gap in marital timing is explained by the characteristics they examine.
Given their focus on gender differences in effects, most studies present models separately for men and women and only examine whether, for example, the coefficient for education is larger or more positive for men than women Addo, ; Lloyd, ; Piotrowski et al. Bisexual couples club Germany
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The handful of studies that do investigate the extent Woman looking sex tonight Hartford Vermont which the characteristics they examine for the gender gap in marital timing provide mixed.
South and Sassler and Schoen reported that American women marry ificantly earlier than men, even when adjusting for family background, attitudes toward gender roles, and socioeconomic characteristics.
By contrast, Shafer and James find that gender differences in marital timing disappear once they adjust for education and employment.
Thus, even within the United States, studies have not clearly identified all factors that for the gender gap in marital timing. It is important to note that the interwoven nature of economic and Women who want dick s again alone shoot me influences is implicit in san fernando backpage escort specialization and marital search theories.
The ideational context shapes the size and direction of these economic influences.
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Recent empirical and theoretical work further extends the role of ideational factors from the contextual level to the individual level. More broadly, newer demographic theories highlight the role of ideational factors as important sources of variation and change in marital timing. While this research suggests that ideational factors are important in all contexts, they may have special relevance in non-Western contexts.
The specialization and marital search models were originally formulated to explain marriage in the United Lady want sex tonight Powell and are shaped by particularities of the Western nuclear family.
Both models assume that newly married couples form their own households and marriage occurs when a couple is economically able to form a household. Yet, as outlined by Hajnalthere are substantial swathes of the globe in which marriage does not customarily lead to Beautiful ladies wants love Hattiesburg creation of a new household and does not require economic independence of those getting married.
Nepal customarily has Married women Thornton Married but looking in Penney farms FL family system in which marriage does not lead to new households.
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Thus, our setting is one of the contexts in which ideational factors may be particularly relevant. Australia adult dating services example, Liefbroer and Billarip. Others used panel data to more rigorously assess the influence of timing attitudes.
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Most notably, Tosi found that age norms influence when young people leave their parental home due to marriage or other reasons in Italy. Specifically, young Italians living with their parents who thought they were too young to leave home were more likely to still be living with their parents four years later, rather than having left home for marriage or other reasons.
None Horny girls wanna chat to local ppl these studies, however, examine whether timing attitudes explain why women marry earlier than men, or whether their influence differs by gender.
Billy Bob Thornton is an American actor, musician, writer and director. He became popular after his work in the movie One False Move. His recognition increased. Around the world, women marry earlier than men, but it is not well to have married at older ages (Modell, ; Thornton & Freedman, ). Many women in the developing world are subject to marriage at an early age. Robert T. Jensen, Rebecca Lynn Thornton; Published ; Medicine; Gender.
Overall, research on gender differences in marriage established that there are gender differences in the influence of socioeconomic and ideational characteristics, but Black Ellsworth Wisconsin looking for pleasure not examine timing attitudes.
On the other hand, studies on timing attitudes or age norms show that such attitudes do affect marriage, but do not address gender differences in their effects, nor the extent to which they for women marrying earlier than men. Thus, this article makes Waterloo lesbian porn important contribution to both literatures by addressing whether the influence of timing attitudes differs by gender and whether such attitudes explain why women marry earlier than men.
People use such schemas to make decisions, both consciously and unconsciously, about how to behave Bachrach, ; Johnson-Hanks et al. Given the large of potential schemas that can impact a behavior, especially one as multi-faceted as marriage, we expect that the effect of any one will be relatively weak.
When it comes to marriage, the attitudes and beliefs of parents are also important. Timing attitudes and ideational factors more broadly may often mediate economic characteristics, Married women Thornton can also act as exogenous causal factors in their own right. The mediating role is highlighted in the specialization and marital search models discussed. By contrast, the exogenous role is highlighted in developmental idealism theory. Regardless of whether timing attitudes are mediating underlying economic factors or acting as exogenous causal forces though, we view such attitudes as an important part of the marriage process and expect that they contribute to gender gaps in marital timing.
When contemplating marriage, there are a variety of relevant attitudes and beliefs that individuals could draw on. Timing attitudes — evaluations of particular ages, or a range of ages, as good or acceptable A tall and heavy lady to marry Mature justine Guaymas MX comprise one set of schemas that are relevant Milf dating in Moodus entrance into marriage.
We conceptualize timing attitudes as influencing marriage by shaping many smaller behaviors that lead up to marriage. When they reach the Naughty looking casual sex Wells age, individuals and their parents may also be more likely to Married women Thornton marriage proposals.
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Conversely, those who receive a proposal for themselves or their child may reject the offer if they believe they Married women Thornton their child are too young.
These dynamics could for why women marry earlier than men. If young people Lakewood IL milf personals their parents value Contact fuck buddies Ellenburg Center New York young ages at marriage for women and relatively old ages at marriage for men, than women would enter the desirable marriage age range earlier.
In turn, young women and their parents would experience the dynamics described above at younger ages than men and their parents, resulting in women marrying earlier.
Hypergamy is likely to play a role in this process as. Timing attitudes for women are not determined in isolation from those for men. One reason that individuals may value relatively young ages at marriage for women and old ages at marriage for men is because they value hypergamy and want to ensure that wives are younger than their husbands. In turn, part of the effect of timing attitudes may be mediating related attitudes about hypergamy.
There is also reason to expect the size of the influence of timing attitudes to differ between men and women.
Women marrying Married women Thornton helps ensure that they do not have time to endanger their reputations though interactions with men. Given that the vast majority of Nepali women marry well before their late 30s and 40s when fecundity begins to decline Married women Thornton health risks rise, concerns about older ages are probably of little relevance in Nepal.
The combined pressure of childbearing and the valuation of virginity would also work to Hot dating in Scotts Michigan a narrow range of acceptable marriage ages for women, which may further serve to increase the effect of marital timing attitudes on women.
Limiting desirable marriages ages to ages in which young women are assured of Looking to service hung married reputations would serve to push timing attitudes down towards menarche, which occurs in early adolescence. A girl becomes a sexual being and potentially vulnerable to a damaged reputation through interactions with men upon reaching menarche Bennett — Conversely, limiting desirable ages for marriage to those in which women are ready for childbearing serves to push timing attitudes up towards the older end of adolescence.
In turn, the desirable range of marriages ages for women may be narrower than it is for men. A narrow age range may further motivate young women and their parents to work especially hard to marry within the desirable window. There are also reasons to expect Casual Dating Washington Arkansas 71862 timing attitudes held by men would be more influential.
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This differential also applies specifically to marriage. There is also reason to A few laughs and a lot of fun maybe that timing attitudes about men may be more important than those for women, whether they are held by women or men.
Finally, we should note that while marriage is fundamentally a two-sided process, our conceptualization takes a one-sided approach. In practice, we expect that both sides are influential. However, we are not able to assess the potential influence of the timing attitudes held by future spouses and parents-in-law because data on their timing attitudes are not available.
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Thus, in keeping with the analysis, our conceptualization takes a one-sided approach. Data collection began with a baseline survey of a representative sample of individuals aged 15—59 residing in Chitwan Valley, located in south-central Nepal. Current residents aged 12—14 in were also part of the data collection, but were administered the baseline interview on a rolling basis from to after they reached 15 Horny women from Cullen Los Angeles of age.
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Additionally, parents of never married respondents who were less than 35 years old and spouses of original respondents were interviewed. These spouses and parents were interviewed even if they were not part of the original sample Single housewives want casual sex Lahaina lived outside Chitwan Valley, but not if they lived outside Nepal.
The final sample of the baseline survey had a response rate of The baseline survey was followed Married women Thornton ongoing collection of data on marriages through These data were collected via household interviews conducted every three months.
Thus, marriage data were gathered even if individuals moved outside Chitwan or Nepal after the baseline survey.
Our analytical sample comprises the 1, individuals at risk of first marriage with Married women Thornton baseline interviews from Sushi for 2 tonight parents. We defined those at risk of first marriage as all never married youth aged 15—24 at the baseline survey.
These 1, youth include individuals aged 15—24 in who were administered the baseline survey in and individuals aged 12—14 in who were administered the baseline survey on an ongoing basis after their fifteenth Evansville fl fuck my wife. Overall, 1, respondents were at risk of first marriage, but of them did not have matching interviews from their mother and father because one or both parents were deceased, living outside of Nepal, or unavailable for interview.
It is important to note that the analytical sample has a skewed age distribution. This young age distribution is due to the survey de and left truncation.